Thakkar Klan

Thakkar Klan

The specific silence all around, the prevailing coolness in the atmosphere, the milky white sheet of moonlight spreadind all over the proudly ripened and pleasantly smelling fields, memsmerise me and demand me to share the beuty of my village with someone who can feel it and let it get down deep into one’sheart.

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        Location of the village

The Village is located on Phalia-Sial-Mor Road, 35 Km away from Phalia nearly the same distance from Sial More ( Motorway Interchange ) at the bank of the Chenab River and bears a very rich in culture, agriculture and traditions.

The village is 63 Km south-west of M.B.Din, east of Sargodha bordering Sargodha, Hafizabd and Mandi Bahauddin.

It lies in union council Bherowal, Tehsil Phalia and District Mandi Bahauddin and in the area of Qadir Abad Police Station.

      Neighbouring villages, towns and geographical landmarks

Thakkar Klan is situated 3km south west of Bherowal, the main nearby town, west of Raan Klan

east-west of AurayKlan, and north ofThakkar Miana. It islocated almost 3km north of the RiverChenab (Ghagianwala). The nearby famous TownTakhat Hazara is located a few km west from the village which is famous for the love story of Heer-Ranjha

History of the village

The exact origin of the village is unknown but the history can be traced 25 generation back at least, making it oldest among all the neighbouring villages.  Seven villages are said to have been originated from Thakkar Klan. The names of the villages are, Auray, Sheray wala, Walayat Wala, Moosa, Raan Klan, Waryam and fatoo-wala.

The old village was originally located at the place where now stands the villlage Thakkar Miana. It was later eliminated by a severe PLAGUE ( Taa’un ) and levelled by An earthquake ultimately.

Later the foundation of the new village was laid at the current location at some elevated position from ground level to keep it safe from the flooding in nearby Chenab river.

  • Founder of the village

The history of the founder of the village is completely recorded. The founder of the village was named ‘’THAKKAR Ranjha’’ S/O Pithar, S/O Daasu who was among the predecessors of Sultan Sanda who migrated from the sacredland of Arabia to Multan for preaching Islam.

Thakkar then migrated to Sindh and died in anonymity. He had three sons named Azam, Haam and Shaam among them the later two died issueless (Be-aulaad) and the current population of Ranjhas, the native cast, are the descendents of Azam.

  • Parts (Mohallas) and boundaries in the village

The village has few small scattered pockets of populations in areas like the Basti of Pathans (Afghanis) atthe east side of the village and ‘’Basti Pathan’’ at east-west of the village along the road side.

Aimaan khooh has also grown to become a small village located at southern end of the village along the road side. ‘’Dera Atta Mohammad’’ at the east end of the village is also growing in number of houses.

’Taahli Aala Khooh’’ is also getting the shape of a small village. It is situated at the west south of the village near the graveyard.

The main street of the village separates it into two parts, politically called the eastern and western Wards. The eastern part is newly built and the western part contains the oldest village situated at an elevation.

The eastern part is located at low elevation and has been facing Sewage and drainage problems which have been resolved now.

Total Land of the village.

            The total land of the village is 3200 Acres

Khoohs and land distribution

Khoohs ( Wells )once the source of watering fields have although been replaced completely but their names are still used to refer to landmarks and one cannot understand the position of any place without knowing their names. The population in the past had also been centered around these Wells and some places still growing in size are getting the shapes of small villages.

The names and positions of the KHOOHs   are as follows

1. Daanian wala KhoohKohlayan Wala khooh, Taahli Aala Khooh, and Nawan Khooh (2no) are situated at the west side of the village. While Andarla khooh was situated near the Jamia Mosque. Buryaana, and Bulhyaana khooh is situated near the road on eastern  side of the village the former at the eastern side is situated near the Basti Pathana at Dera Ghulam Ali Ranjha.Miana khooh at the southern side of the village is included in the village now and is called Miana Dera.Meeray Wala has been at the west Southern side of the village near the Graveyard and the Aemaan Khooh( now a small village) is situated at the southern side at the road

near the Thakkar Miana boundary.

Baloo-ana and Budha khooh were present between road and Band (The flood barrier) at the southern side of the village.

Har’raan Wala and Chhatay wala are situated at Dera of Anar Sheray Da and dera of Master Mohammad Haneef respectively.( pic on right).

Niamo-wala Khooh was present till a few years back at the North side of the Village at dera Ghulam Nabi Ranjha.(Upper small picture)

The wells ( Khoohs ) of the Bela (the area along river belt) were Maachhian wala KhoohRaajay ka KhoohTaajay ka khooh and Budhay ka Khooh along the river side.

These 23 Khoohs in the past were a great indication of the Agricultural development of the village. Even a Small battle was also been fought with the village of Kot Hast Khan and Raan that  invaded Thakkar to Occupy the village for its Khoohs (Persian wells) but Sabaig and Gul Jhanda, the brave elders of the village fought valiently against them and defeated them and the conspiracy of occupying the village was foiled.

            Mosques and Shrines (Mazars) in the village

The village is echoed with the sound of Allah o Akbar from the five village mosques five times a day. Among the five mosques of the village, three are Jamia mosques. One mosque named Rehmania mosque is situated in the middle of the village and is held by the Deobandi sect of the village. The main Sunni Jamia Mosque is at the extreme west of the village at most elevated place of the village and its grandiose high minarets add to the dignity of the village people.

All the surrounding small deras (Small crusts of populations in the suburbs) also have their separate mosques.

            Historical building

  • The village contains only one dilapidated historical building present since partition. It is about to collapse. The Dharmsaal (worshiping place of Hindus) was the only historical building that was demolished in 1998.
  • Two mazaars named Jhaaran-wala and one more mazaar at the bus stop exist in the village.

Population (inhabitants) of the village

The population of the village is approximately 5500 or more. The total registered voters according to the current Voter lists are about 2000 with about equal male to female ratio.

  • Major Casts of the Village

Ranjha is the native and major cast of the village as is clear from history. The others migrated to the village later and are named according to their original places. They are;

1.      Ranjha (Major families)

2.      Lak ( on eastern side )

3.      Kamyaanay ( western part )

4.      Thatyanay

5.      Gondal ( A few families )

6.      Tarar

7.      Uggowanay (A few families)

8.      Garhaanay  ( One family)

9.      Mahaajar ( Who migrated from India to Pakistan )

10.  Muslim Sheikh

11.  Taili

12.  Meerasi ( Qureshi )

13.  Lohaar

14.  Tirkhan

15.  Nai

16.  Mochi

17.  Kumehaar

18.  Darzi

19.  Maachhi

     Culture of the Village:

  • The village has deep rooted traditions and a typical village culture. The common tradition of the village is the division of labour.  The Zameendars as usual are dominant over the workers but not as much as in the ‘’Sindi culture’’. A division of labour is very clearly visible among all the castes of the village and their co-operation with each other seem webbed and tangled and cannot be separated.
  • They work in accordance with each other and an intricate but well defined social system is developed. The various casts have shared their work for each other.  The system is called SAIP system which can be defined as a return of services in response for the services one renders. The workers are found to have SAIP with zameendars and perform their socially assigned services in return of grain and many other benefits. The Nais in response are responsible for services as a barber and cooking at the marriage and other occasions. Kumehars provide services like digging grave at funeral occasions and also carry grains to homes and their milling back, and bringing soil for the Layering of the roofs with soil. Mochi (cobblers) are confined to stitching shoes and their repairing. They also help kumehars in digging graves. Tailis have the responsibility of grinding seeds for oil extraction and processing of cotton. Musalli (Muslim Sheikhs) mix soil with water for roof layering and help keep the fire burning for Gurr (Kind of sugar) formation from sugar cane.  Tirkhan (Carpenter) renders services for woodwork.Lohaar has the saip to prepare Sickles, axes and sharpening of tools along with sawing the wood for burning at marriage and death ceremonies. Maachhis at the end make breads on special occasions and everyday life.They cook chappatis for the villagers at Tanoor (hearth). They were also responsible for carrying the DOLLY, the small wooden cabin of the Bride. Meerasis have the duty of remebring the Hierarchy (Shajra-e-Nasb) and tying up new bonds of marriage among families. They also sing at ceremonies like birth of a young one and at other occasions of happiness. Nothing except eatables need to be purchased by the workers, generally called Kammi, and they all are provided with fodder and wood from the Zameendars.  At the cutting of the crop, they are provided with wheat and rice specified.
  • This system is prevailing since centuries but seems to be unappealing by the growing youth and they want to earn their livelihood free of the effects of Zameendars.
  • This system no doubt is against their basic independence and human rights, and does not allow common villagers to provide a decent education to their children. Resultantly they remain illiterate generation after generation and hence remain ignorant and ill developed while the children of higher families get educated cashing in on the handwork of the commoners. This system creates great social inequality and injustice so is vanishing for gradually.

Jirgah history

Thakkar Klan as usual had a well developed Jirgah System. Most of the local issues are solved through the Jirgah System also Called Pareihon in local language. Very rarely the matter is brought to the  police for dispute settlement. The most trusted personlaity in this regard has been Ghulam Nabi S/O Rahmaan(May his soul rest in heaven). Now the system seems to be politicised but still it works

Traditions

The village contains certain traditions since centuries and some of them seem to diminish by the evolution of new era. A few among these are

    1. Wangaar

The people of the village help each other in the reaping of crops and work as a team. Same is the case in tilling and ploughing.

2Chikri Core (the layering of mud at the roof            of newly built house)

It has also been an ancient custom to help the relatives in building houses and all the family people get together to help and wish the special occasion. This tradition is on the decline now.

            The important clans of the village

            The village land is divided into four  Pattis (Pl; Pattian). They are as follows

1. Danyaanay

Makhni kay, Khanoo k, Khushi kay, Karmoo kay, Naajay kay and Saee Rajay kay belong to this Patti

2. Junaanay

Peeray kay, Bahadur kay, Laalay kay and Shahu kay are Junaanay

3. Hasnaanay

Luthoo kay, Daadu kay, Kaashim kay,Guil kay, Sabaig kay, Mirjay kay Maanay kay and shahu kay belong to Hasnani Patti.

4. Bulayaanay

Kheeway kay, Jaloo kay, Ahmay kay, Naajay kay, Lilyaanay and Lamyaanay are from Bulyaani Patti.

  • Source of income of the village

The main source of income of the people is agriculture for Zameendar Baradri (Clan). Except the agriculture, three bricks companies provide a major source of     livelihood to the labour and gives employment to about 300 or more poor people. The young working generation of the village earns its livelihood from Lahore (Stitching Factories) and Islamabad (Ceiling and marble works). The poultry farms and the fish farms are among the growing industries in the village.

The educated people mostly are job holders and the most among them are teachers. A great number of the people are tailors and rest earn their livelihood through daily wages.

            People Abroad

Many a people have settled abroad for their livelihood. Most of them are in Saudi Arabia while new trend is developing for European countries.

Some people abroad are

1.      Liaqat Ali Ranjha ( France)

2.      Safdar Iqbal Ranjha(France)

3.      M Hanif Ranjha      (France)

4.      Safdar Iqbal Rabanni ( Saudi Arabia)

5.      M Iqbal Tabassam (UAE)

6.      Mukhtar Ahmad Darzi

   (List under construction)

  • Teachers

7.      Master Mohammad Hanif Ranjha

8.      Master Saif-Ullah ( Head Master Primary School Thakkar klan )

9.      Master Zafar Tarar ( D.T.E. Bherowal)

10.  Master Mohammad Bakhsh S/O Salehon Mohammad(The Greatest Teacher)

11.  Master Anwar

12.  Master Mohammad Khan

13.  Master Nazir Ahmed S/O Sher Mohammad

14.  Master Mohammad Arif

15.  Master Manzoor Ahmed

16.  Master Mohammad Ashraf S/O Saee Mohammad

17.  Master Nazir Ahmed S/O Saee Mohammad

18.  Master Mohammad Ashraf ( Primary School Basti Makhdoom)

  • People in Civil Services

1.      Mohammad Ali Ranjha (Instructor Civil, Govt College of Technology Rasul)

2.      Sultan Ali Ranjha ( Draughtsman, Irrigation Deptt Lahore )

3.      Mohammad Khan Ranjha ( SDO Irrigation, Sheikhupura )

4.      Zafar Iqbal Tarar, ( District teacher’s Educator Bherowal )

5.      Mohammad Bashir ( Line Superintendent Wapda, Bhabra )

6.      Riaz Ahmed Ranjha S/O Khawaja ( Punjab Police)

7.      Shahbaz Ahmed Ranjha S/O Fareed Ahmad ( Punjab Police)

8.      Asif Ahmed Ranjha S/O Manzoor Ahmed (Punjab Police)

9.      Tanveer Ahmed Ranjha S/O Manik (Punjab Police)

10.  Aslam Sajid   (Pak Army)

           Advocates

            1. Mukhtar Ahmad Ranjha (Advocate High Court)

2. Zafar Iqbal Ranjha (LLM, UK)

Foreign Qualified Personnel

1.Zafar Iqbal Ranjha (LLM, Bungy University UK)

2.Faisal Iqbal Ranjha ( California, USA )

The social personalities of the present are

1. Nazir Ahmad Ranjha (Ex Naib Nazim Union Council Bherowal)

           2. Ansar Abbas Ranjha (Chairman Market Committee M.B.Din & youth                        representative of the village)

            3.  Mian Ghulam Nabi

The social personalities of the past were

1.      Ghulam Nabi Ranjha S/O Rahmaan ( The old representative of the village )

2.      Mohammad Bakhsh S/O Naaja

3.      Khushi Mohammad S/O Rahmaan

Highly Qualified Personalities of the Village

1.       Rana Mohammad Iqbal ( MSc Botany ) Formanite

2.      Ahmed Sher Ranjha ( Chartered Accountant )

3.      Zafar Iqbal Ranjha ( LLM, Bungy University, UK )

4.      Zafar Iqbal Tarar ( M.A Islamiat )

5.      Master Mohammad Bakhsh ( M.A, B.Ed )

6.      Sultan Ali Ranjha ( Draughtsman Irrigation Deptt Lahore )

7.      Mushtaque Ahmad Qureshi ( B.Com )

8.      Mohammad Nawaz Ranjha ( Civil Engineer )

Schools And Education in the Village

  • There are Sseparate primary schools for boys and girls in the village, along with three Evening Literacy Schools run by the local educated females with the special aid of the Punjab Government.
  • Two Private primary Schools, Pilot Public School and one other branch, not established yet, are also serving the Village.
  • The students go to the nearby town Bherowal for High School, where one Govt and three Private High Schools are presentNo Girls  High School is present in the locality.
  • The village womens are also doing justice with studies and are getting higher education. One student is getting an M.B.A degree while one more student is doing MBBS and still one in B.Com. The village females walk to Bherowal for high School education every morning.

Health Facilities in the Village

  • The health facilities of the village are provided by the only One Basic Health unit with only one qualified Dispenser. No qualified doctor is yet available in the village.
  • The people visit Bhekho More RHC, 25 km away for better health facilities. Only one surgeon visits the nearby village Bherowal on Sunday.
  • In case of Emergency people visit Sial More mostly, and in chronic illnesses, Dr Nazir Ahmed Shah Puria is considered an authority.

Shops in the Village

  • Among the Shops, Shah Muhammad Kirayana and General Store is famous most because of its Versatility. It does provide all the commodities ofeveryday use right from medicine to Hosiery, shoes to fruits, beverages and tools, iron goods and the books, Seeds and garments, and many more combinations. It caters almost every thing to the village people they generally need. Other famous shops are Haneefu Khojay di Hatti andKamyaanyan di HattiAapan Shanaz di Hatti is also earning fame these days.
  • There are a few video Shops, one cloth shop and the only Engineering Workshop   (in the picture right) run by self made person Ghulam Ali Lohaar in the village.

Media and Communication:

Media has very little to do with the village. Only one copy of  a national daily is delivered to the village. There are no net cafes and the only local website is this one. Most of the people use Radio receivers to get the latest information from VOA News or BBC. This has become a part of the village culture. No Cable network is present in the village and only a fraction of the villagers has TV sets  in their homes.

All major Mobile Phone companies except Zong provide cellular Service in the area and mobile phones have become, as usual, the hub of discussions among the youth.

Historical importance:

The village possesses a rich culture and history importance as being once the largest village of the surrounding area unto Takhat Hazara. And gave rise to seven surrounding villages named above in the introduction area.

Main Hotels and Restaurants:

The village has no hotel and restaurant but at bus stop, the only Dhaaba of the village is run by Chacha Mutalli Kumehar where tea, sweets and beverages are served and free movies are shown.

Free time & Hobby

The young and senile have different hobbies. The elders gather at   more common places like at the Mochi or Nai’s place where they sit leisurely around the Huqa and share the stroies of the past. They narrate exaggerated stories of the legendary heroes of the past, half fictitious and half real.                              

They often indulge in nostalgic comparison of the golden years of the past with the present chaos.

The pastimes of the youth are different. The traditions are changing rapidly among the youth. Dish and Indian culture is captivating the youth. But thanks to Inflation, Mehngai that most of the youth are earning fame in earning livelihood at cities.

Sports

·               Volley Ball (The recent craze)                            

·               Cricket (common in the growing generation)

·               Paansa Baazi (Once common in old)

·               Jalsa (resembling Kabaddi has once been the most popular among the elders)

·               Kabaddi (Least common now)

·               Kabootar Baazi (Growing smoothly)

Famous Detective of the Village

Saee Mohammad Maachhi is the well known detective of the village. He has got the good ability of investigating foot prints of thiefs. No one in the area is as talented as him.          

           

Agriculture (3200 Acres)

The village is basically an Agricultural mine and agriculture is the pride of the people. About 99 % of the earning of the village comes from agriculture and the village is provided with canal water channels as well as abundant tube wells installed every where and in summer season all the village surroundings are reverberated with the sound of the Peter Engines.                                              

The agricultural development can be guessed by the fact that you cannot find even a two acre Play ground around the village upto the river bank. The people use Tractor Machines and advanced machinery for the agriculture. The Peter engines are getting replaced by Electric motors with the support of the Punjab Govt but Electricity crisis has reversed the process now.

The water is plentifully available and underground water can be pumped out from a 50 feet deep tube well.

Flood

As the village is situated near the Chenab River, so flooding does play an important role in its culture and history alongwith productivity. About all the families have got their lands within flood barrier( Band) and the crops and the lands are affected by the flood. The water returns in a few days but leaves many stories behind for years.

Major Crops of the Village

      The major crops of the village in the order of abundance are

  • Wheat
  • Rice
  • Sugarcane
  • Kinnow
  • Maize
  • Sorghum
  • Millet(Baajra)
  • Loosarn
  • Shitaala
  • Tobacco

The crops least cultivated in present and abundant in the past were

  • Alsi
  • Cotton
  • Barley(Jaun)
  • Massar
  • Dhimyaan

Transport

The means of transport are cycles, motorcycles and a few motor cars. Motor Cycles are getting abundant day by day and seem to be replaced by the motor bikes. Though people are rich but there doesnt seem to be a growing trend for buying cars.

Other least common means of transportation include tractors and rarely donkeys.

Saying about village

There is a well known saying about the village; “ Jehrian Thakkar maojan nain Oh Waryaam naeen’’ (Tthe leisures of Thakkar are not available at Waryaam)

Partition time

The village earned a good fame and repute for saving all the Hindus, and handing them over to the Army for migration to India. Not even a single person was killed. Manak Bosaal, who had been involved in the massive killing of the hindus at varioussurrounding villages just for the sake of money and jewels, also invaded the village but people of the village saved hindus in exchange for the money and returned them safely to their homes.

The oldest man in the village

Nazir Patvari is the noble oldest man in the village who is above 100 yrs but still healthy by the grace of Allah.

           

The Pride of the village

            Mian Shafi Mohammad (Late) Soobedaar Pak Army)

            Saee Maachhi S/O Khawaja Maachhi

The oldest tree of the village

The Banyan tree(Borh) in Daara, (the common place of the village for social gatherings, like marriages and deaths) is the oldest tree of the village. The tree was planted by the grand father of Mohammad Ameer Qureshi about some 400 years back. This tree, who is the only oldest living creature of the villgae and who rendered its cool shadows to the people for centuries and provided its motherly twigs as cradel to many generations for playing, is losing life due to some virulent disease. Its fatherly cool shadows dont seem to nurture the coming generations and it will be dried up soon but we cannot do any thing to save this old beneficiery of the village.

Religious Traditions

The people are closer to the religion sectarian in character. The main sect of the village is Sunni, next are Wahabis and a few Shia families. All the sects are independent in performing their religious ceremonies. Although some times a tense situation may be seen but never so much as to create a new Fasaad(conflict) among the sects. Most of the people keep fast and dont seem to compromise over it.

            Rituals

Most of the marriages have been taking place within families and within the village. So this custom to a great extent enriched relations and strengthened bonds between families in the villgae. Now the trend of marriages outside the village is there but outside the familily still doesnt exist.

Nature of People of the village

The people of the village are hospitable, simple, mostly uneducated or with little education but all of them are inclined to get their children well educated. Although the people are rich but no trend of showing wealth and power. Their is no enmity among the people and Alhamdolillah no serious comabt has ever taken place between two families. People are free to move any time and no one seems to interfere into the other’s affairs.

The people lead a simple life and dont have too much luxuries. Local customs are usually followed. People lead a balanced and routine life and help each other in their problems. The dreesses common among the elders are Dhoti and Kurta while the young generation prefers shalwar and qamees. The youth doesnt feel influenced by western attire(dresses) and people usually dont like. Most of the young females wear veil over shalwar Qamees when they come out of their homes.

Special Blessings of Allah

Cold water, prospering people, and peace are the special blessings of Allah for the village. May Allah keep his blessings on our village.

Future Pillars of the Village

Many a student is getting education and would support the future of Pakistan. Their names are as follows.

              Adil Imtiaz                                   S/O      Mohammad Imtiaz     BScElectronics UET(LHR)

            2. Faisal Imtiaz                      S/O      Mohammad Imtiaz    FSc (LHR)                

3. FahadIqbal Ranjha          S/O      Muhammad Iqbal       F.Sc/B.Com/ACCA

4.  Mian Mohammad Ilyas     S/O      Shafi Mohammad       B.Com

5.  Safdar Iqbal Ranjha          S/O      Mohammad Hanif      B.A

6. Naveed Iqbal Ranjha        S/O      Ahmad Khan              F.A

7. Ahsan Ullaha Ranjha        S/O      Muhammad Nazar      F.Sc/B.Com

8Zafar Iqbal Ranjha                        S/O      Shah Muhammad       F.A

9. Ijaz Ahmed Ranjha           S/O      Mohammad Fareed    Servayor

10Taimoor Iqbal Ranjha     S/O      Mohammad Walayat  Civil Engineering

11. Riaz Ahmed Lohar          S/O      Muhammad Lohar      Civil Surveyor

12. Tariq Ahmed Mochi         S/O      Nazir Ahmed              Civil Survay

13. Tasawar Shahzad             S/O      Mukhtar Ahmed         F.A, Q.S, Auto CAD

14. Irshad Ahmed                  S/O      Ghulam Yahiya          F.A

15. Naveed Sajid                   S/O      Ghulam Rasool           F.A

16. Rana Usman                     S/O      Manzoor Ahmad        Q.S

17. Mohammad Irfan Tarar    S/O      Mohammad Inayat     B.A

18. Shahbaz Ahmed Garhana            S/O      Fateh Mohammad      F.A

19. Zaheer Hayaat Ranjha     S/O      Mohammad Hayat     B.A

20. Kashif Murtaza                S/O      M.Ali Ranjha              FSc

21. Safdar Iqbal                     S/O      Saif ullah Ranjha        B.Com

Shehr-e-Khamoshan

Some 50 meters west of the village lies a place called the SILENT CITY, a famous but ignored city. A place for all to return one after one. The city contains about hundreds of Graves housing in it the pioneers and historians of the village and the place we all have to move in ultimately.

The graveyard covers a vast area of about two acres while one acre more is disputed. The personalities who figured out the map of the villlage and those who nourished and nurtured its inhabitants lie there. May there souls rest in heaven!!!

The janaz-e-gah (the place for prayer in graveyard) has been renovated by the mutual efforts and contribution of the people last year.

Local Telephone directory

  • No local directory is available but for any information regarding any person or custom of the village or any other detail, regarding village, a hotline named Chacha Shah Muhammad is available. You can contact this person any time at phone number,

      +92-345-5860586. The ptcl number for the village is +92-546-540127.

The problems of the village

            The problems of the village include

o   The incresing rate of Addiction

o   The little space available for dumping sewage water

o   Growing sectarianism

Contributions;

    1. Ghulam Ali Ranjha( Geography, landmarks, khoohs and clans)
    2. Master Zafar Iqbal Tarar( Educated people, people in civil services, etc)
    3. Fahad Iqbal Ranjha ( The youth of the village, and education)
    4. Mohammad Ameer Qureshi( History, the oldest tree, Clans, Division of labour etc)
    5. Special thanks to Prof Sameer Ahmed(GC Lahore) and Prof Azhar Jaffari(GC Kamonke) for proof reading of the script.
    6. Photography and editing by Rafaqat Ali Ranjha

Feedback;

           

For positive criticism, suggestion or acquisition of more information dont hesitate to contact me atrafaqat_ranjha@yahoo.com or at rafaqat.ranjha@channel-5.tv You can also call me at 03004947086 any time.

U can also add me at Orkut by searching Rafaqat Ali Ranjha or open the link below.

http://www.orkut.com/Profile.aspx?uid=5082980616955550400

Note.

It has been a custom in the village to call people with their castes or with thier fathers names or both but never alone. So describing castes with names has been entirly for identification, with no aim to give projection to any specific caste.